AN INTRODUCTION TO CRITICAL THINKING STEVEN SCHAFERSMAN

This is true because critical thinking mimics the well-known method of scientific investigation:. All of the skills of scientific investigation are matched by critical thinking, which is therefore nothing more than scientific method used in everyday life rather than in specifically scientific disciplines or endeavors. Critical thinking is also critical inquiry, so such critical thinkers investigate problems, ask questions, pose new answers that challenge the status quo, discover new information that can be used for good or ill, question authorities and traditional beliefs, challenge received dogmas and doctrines, and often end up possessing power in society greater than their numbers. Critical thinking means correct thinking in the pursuit of relevant and reliable knowledge about the world. Critical thinking is a form of judgment, specifically purposeful and reflective judgment. Universal concepts and principles of critical thinking can be applied to any context or case but only by reflecting upon the nature of that application. Perhaps you can now see the problem.

This second ability is termed critical thinking. In other words, though critical thinking principles are universal, their application to disciplines requires a process of reflective contextualization. A person who thinks critically can ask appropriate questions, gather relevant information, efficiently and creatively sort through this information, reason logically from this information, and come to reliable and trustworthy conclusions about the world that enable one to live and act successfully in it. All of the skills of scientific investigation are matched by critical thinking, which is therefore nothing more than scientific method used in everyday life rather than in specifically scientific disciplines or endeavors. Critical thinking means correct thinking in the pursuit of relevant and reliable knowledge about the world. Critical thinking forms, therefore, a system of related, and overlapping, modes of thought such as anthropological thinking, sociological thinking, historical thinking, political thinking, psychological thinking, philosophical thinking, mathematical thinking, chemical thinking, biological thinking, ecological thinking, legal thinking, ethical thinking, musical thinking, thinking like a painter, sculptor, engineer, business person, etc. Critical thinking is important, because it enables one to analyze, evaluate, explain, and restructure our thinking, decreasing thereby the risk of acting on, or thinking with, a false premise.

It includes possible processes of reflecting upon a tangible or intangible item in order to form a solid judgment that reconciles scientific evidence with common sense. Most people, therefore, do not think critically.

True critical thinking is higher-order thinking, enabling a person to, for example, responsibly judge between political candidates, serve on a murder trial jury, evaluate society’s need for nuclear power plants, and assess the consequences of global warming. Most people indulge in wishful, hopeful, and emotional thinking, believing that what they believe is true because they wish it, hope it, or feel it to be true. Humans constantly process information.

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In addition, there is always the possibility of inadvertent human error. It may be that a workable society or culture can tolerate only a small number of critical thinkers, that learning, internalizing, and thinkng scientific and critical thinking is discouraged. Here are fhinking of the characteristics of such a thinker:. Though the term “analytical thinking” may seem to convey the idea more accurately, critical thinking clearly involves synthesis, evaluation, and reconstruction of thinking, thinling addition to analysis.

This second ability is termed critical thinking. Nickersonan authority on critical thinking, characterizes a good critical thinker in terms of knowledge, abilities, attitudes, and habitual ways of behaving.

All of the skills of scientific investigation are matched by critical thinking, which is therefore nothing more intrpduction scientific method used in critkcal life rather than in specifically scientific disciplines or endeavors.

an introduction to critical thinking steven schafersman

Critical thinking skills are nothing more than problem solving skills that result in reliable knowledge. This is why critical thinking can occur within a given subject field by reference to its specific set of permissible questions, evidence sources, criteria, etc.

Definition of Critical Thinking Critical thinking means correct thinking in the pursuit of relevant and reliable knowledge about the world. Critical thinking is also critical inquiry, so such critical thinkers investigate problems, ask questions, pose new answers that challenge the status quo, discover new information that can be used for good or ill, question authorities and traditional beliefs, challenge received dogmas and doctrines, and often end up possessing power in society greater than their numbers.

An Introduction to Critical Thinking by Steven D. Schafersman | The Art of Thinking Critically

Those who are kritikos have the ability to discern or decide by exercising sound judgment The word krino- also means to separate winnow the wheat from the chaff or that which has worth from that which does not. In other words, though critical thinking principles are universal, their application to disciplines requires a process of reflective contextualization. Stopping for red lights or knowing introductiob you have received the correct change at the supermarket is critical and useful thought, but only low-order thinking; schaferskan individuals master this.

A person who thinks critically can ask appropriate questions, gather relevant information, efficiently and creatively sort through this information, reason logically from this information, and come intrroduction reliable and trustworthy conclusions about the world that enable one to live and act successfully in it. Critical thinking is the ability to think for one’s self and reliably and responsibly make those decisions that affect one’s life.

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Given research in cognitive psychology, some educators believe that schools should focus more on teaching their students critical thinking skills, intellectual standards, and cultivating intellectual traits such as intellectual humility, intellectual empathy, intellectual integrity, and fair-mindedness than on memorizing facts by rote learning.

We do an excellent job of transmitting the thniking of our respective academic disciplines, but we often fail to teach students how to think effectively about this subject matter, that is, how to properly understand and evaluate it. Critical thinking, in the strong sense, does not include simply the acquisition and retention of information, or the possession of a skill-set which one does not use regularly; nor does critical thinking merely exercise skills without acceptance of the results.

Here are some of the characteristics of such a thinker: One can regard critical thinking as involving two ro However, even with the use of critical thinking skills, mistakes can happen due to a thinker’s egocentrism or sociocentrism or failure to be in possession of the full facts.

Hence a krites is a discerner, judge or arbiter.

Critical thinking forms, therefore, a system of related, and overlapping, modes of thought such as anthropological thinking, sociological thinking, historical thinking, political thinking, psychological thinking, philosophical thinking, mathematical thinking, chemical thinkin, biological thinking, ecological thinking, legal thinking, ethical thinking, musical thinking, thinking like a painter, sculptor, engineer, business person, etc.

Critical thinking gives due consideration to the evidence, the context of judgment, the relevant criteria for making that judgment well, the applicable methods or techniques for forming that judgment, and the applicable theoretical and constructs for understanding the nature of the problem and the question at hand. All education consists of transmitting to schafresman two different things: Critical Thinking consists of mental processes of discernment, analysis and evaluation.

An Introduction to Critical Thinking by Steven D. Schafersman

Critical thinking means correct thinking in the pursuit of relevant and reliable knowledge about the world. Critica thinking is scientific thinking.

These elements also happen to be the key defining characteristics of professional fields and academic disciplines.

an introduction to critical thinking steven schafersman