The most recent opinion in this area was by Errihani who contends that among language students critical thinking may not be pronounced very strongly because their main aim is to gain fluency and accuracy in language use. As shown in the table, the students claimed to have performed several acts that reflect their critical attitude. Critical thinking involves reflecting on the validity of what you have read in light of our prior knowledge and understanding of the world. None of the respondents reported explicitly the acts that had been trained to them shortly before they filled out the questionnaires setting objectives, identifying assumptions, checking the validity of the assumptions, determining several alternatives to attain the objectives, weighing the consequences for each alternative, and choosing particular ways to attain the objectives. The ability to decide what to believe or do based on solid logic, and to understand the consequences of this decision. Such skill is high on the agenda of development of foreign language learners in the information era, especially in Indonesia where conformity to group, teacher-centered instructions, rote-learning and memory-based learning have been thought to constrain Indonesian students in exercising critical thinking Richmond,

Which one should I use in the real-world? Is it still valid? How many types of letters exist? Compile information together in a different way by combining elements in a new pattern or proposing alternative solutions. Arum and Roksa study on the critical thinking skills of two thousand college students in USA reveals that 45 percent of them do not progress in the quality of their critical thinking, reasoning or writing skills during the initial two years of.

The first section of the paper presents the definition of critical thinking, presenting its primary features, and several examples of instructional situation where it can be applied. Egege and Kutieleh noted that Asian students are widely regarded as lacking non-critical attitude and ignorant of the principles of analysis and critique.


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Critical reading is a technique for discovering information and ideas within a text. They were taught to make sure that the materials they found were trustworthy, complete, and could be used to achieve the goal they set up at the outset. Is the source of this model accurate and trustworthy? Quite possibly, the common practices of simply transferring crihical from textbooks and teachers to the students still thinling, as opposed to a growing intention to make students think more independently and learn for themselves beyond the boundaries of prescribed teaching and books.

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On the contrary, another research finding seems to encourage an opposite view. This study was conducted partly to seek the answers to the issue. The tninking to judge whether this argument is credible and valid based on the logic and evidence given. Similarly, even professors who have not examined explicit theories of critical thinking or made systematic attempts to integrate it into their tutorials may be implicitly, perhaps even systematically, fostering key skills such as the questioning of assumptions.

Years later, there was even a greater concern to focus on the process of critical thinking. University of Chicago Press.

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If conducted with greater intensity and frequency, CT training that is integral with the courses may generate even more impressive outcome. A statement of expert consensus for purposes of educational assessment and instruction.

kurland (2000)/ critical thinking

Thus, the critical thinking skills the learners perform from time to time may have existed implicitly. Examine and break information into parts by identifying motives or causes.

So, as an idea, it has stood the test of time and yet there is still a perceived need to strengthen the 2(000)/ thinking skills in schools and colleges. Why is it possible to have many formats of an inquiry letter?

The outline of the activities in the course is shown in Table 1 below: Critical thonking would come into play when deciding whether the chosen meaning was indeed true, and whether or not you, as the reader, should support that practice.


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Two alternative causes can be offered for this finding. The explicit instruction on CT will serve only to raise their awareness about the critical thinking. Respondent KI went so far as to question the practical value of studying a business letter in the real world.

The data were collected at the beginning of the course through questionnaires.

kurland (2000)/ critical thinking

Notions of critical thinking in Javanese, Batak Thnking and Minangkabau culture. Taken together, the respondents asked more or less the same number of questions but with a higher sense of being critical in their questions after the CT training.

Definitions of Critical Thinking Critifal delving into the issue further, it is best to be clear about what critical thinking really is. Is the business letter really useful for me when I graduate from the university?

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More importantly, these critical thinking skills may have been manifest without them being aware or at least being able to articulate them clearly.

We need to solve problems, build roads, write legislation, or design an advertising campaign. Being open minded requires that a critical thinker adopt these characteristics: Give ita name and plan a marketing campaign. While these acts are arguably manifestation of critical thinking, it could have been preceded by a conscious setting of the goal.

kurland (2000)/ critical thinking

Empowering citizens to think critically: