The last event triggered fumarolic activity that was observed by local inhabitants. The findings indicate that most, if not all, the lava drained from the crater lake out through the fissures, even as far as fissures in Goma itself. The economic activity which the programme revived, based on carpenters and builders, sent a buzz through the whole town and demonstrated clearly what a difference the reintroduction of wages made to the economy. Latrine pits should be dug deeper, but investigation of their porosity and contamination of the lake is needed. An important concern in the eruptive events of 17 January and thereafter has been the potential for emissions of carbon dioxide from fissures and from the soil.

The provision of safe water and adequate food depends almost entirely on outside assistance, which is the life-support system for Goma. The evacuation route for most people living on the south flank of Nyiragongo would be through Goma. More specific measures to reduce vulnerability in a future eruption affecting Goma include organisational, logistical and engineering interventions to maintain and chlorinate drinking water and maintain power supplies in the city, and to stockpile and distribute emergency food rations. The GVO observed new fumarolic activity in the old Shaheru crater and from new cracks in the inner walls of the Nyiragongo crater following the 7 October earthquake. RSS – Subscribe to information finely tuned to your needs. As a result, the eastern side of Goma was dependent at that time on power from Gisenyi.

Case study of a Volcanic eruption : Mt. Nyiragongo

Education of the public and expatriate staff on volcanic volfano is urgently needed. Following further conflict, from Nov, nearly half a million Rwandan returnees from the five Goma camps entered Rwanda through Gisenyi on their way back to their communes. We were shown the location of these vents at the roundabouts at Seigners and Bralima, m or more from the end of the airport runway. The hazard map in current circulation needs revision and the eruption scenarios refined for the Goma Contingency Plan.

nyiragongo volcano case study

As indicated above, a reduction in air quality after the eruption may have been at least partly responsible for these increases. The patients are normally expected to pay for hospital and health studj treatment, though charges for health care were wavered in the two months after the eruption, when use of the facilities markedly increased as a result. Either of these events could lead to catastrophic loss of life.


nyiragongo volcano case study

The BP5 supplies did not arrive until the 28 January, but in the end they were not distributed. Decision making on risk is therefore a balance between the two dangers: Relief agencies may be very reluctant, on valid safety grounds, to enter Goma to provide chlorinated water supplies, in which case the risk of cholera outbreaks will be high in this scenario.

Many of refugees were located by Lake Kivu, but as there was no available way to purify and transport sufficient quantities of water most of the refugees consumed untreated water. On the video a large ball of fire lasting a few seconds came from an explosion near the main lava flow.

Volcanoes – Revision 3 – KS3 Geography – BBC Bitesize

The absence of civil institutions and democratically elected government means that there are none tsudy the usual administrative cawe by which governing bodies can make decisions on societal risk and long term planning on behalf of the Goma population. Yet the aid community in Goma continued to hold to some moral high ground about giving cash. Volcanic hazard risks, scientific forecasts and warnings. The lava fissures at Munigi showed no emissions, but carbon dioxide was being diffusely emitted at several steaming locations in the ground nearby the fissures there.

Volcanoes – Edexcel – Revision 7 – GCSE Geography – BBC Bitesize

Cost-recovery in the health sector: In January and February the power was provided free to the population, and there was, in consequence, no funds to pay Gisenyi for the power and so the supply had become a precarious one there was also no money to pay salaries to the SNEL staff. Video footage shows a remarkable scene of people flooding over this narrow part of the flow and running to prevent their feet from getting burned a few minor foot burns were treated at Goma hospital. The water supply network needs strengthening and extending; and pipes hardened against lava flows e.

The lessons that need to be considered in volcanic risk management for the present population of the Goma area include the following:.

At least 14 villages were Mt Nyiragongo volcano destroyed by the volcajo as it flowed downhill from Goma nearby town the summit of the volcano in lava streams 2m Lake Kivu nearby lake deep and 50m wide Democratic Republic of Congo African Rift Valley12 hrs: Six out of seven stool samples were positive for Ogawa-type cholera vibrios. Security was the main reason for the rapid return of the population: Key considerations include the threat of physical violence, with people being more vulnerable as evacuees depending on where they go, and the threat to the property they leave behind.


The eruption had been preceded by a number of premonitory signs in the months and weeks beforehand, such as increased fracturing and fumarolic activity on the upper southern slopes of the volcano and an increasing level of seismicity, especially between 4 – 17 January.

It erupted over 20 times in the 20th Century and its crater also held a lava lake until If we had given money There is abundant evidence from around the globe that post-disaster economies revive quickly if everyone has a little money to spend.

However, the long-term consequences of the psychological and economic impacts of the destruction to private and commercial property, as well as the political issues surrounding the future viability of Goma, may yet unfold.

Nyiragongo previously erupted in when people may have died in villages over run by the very fluid lava which broke out of the crater without warning from a fracture high up on the south east flank of the volcano.

nyiragongo volcano case study

As outlined already in this report, minimising loss of life also means planning and providing for the continuing supply of safe food and water to the population during their exodus, the period of relocation, which may last weeks or even months, and subsequent return to Goma and its environs. In Januarythe opening of fissures lower down and directed towards Goma may reflect a new evolution for the volcano with eruptions caused by rifting. Two major lava flows up to 2 m.

Mount Nyiragongo 2002 eruption case study

Until the latest eruption, the hazard of Nyiragongo was thought to be limited to the hydrostatic pressure of the lava lake and the risk of breaching the thin wall of the crater. This social dysfunction substantially adds to the danger to the population from future eruptions. About 30, people stayed in nyiragohgo west part of the city during the eruption, and this area is not on the network.