This flow acted as a barrier to the return of the population from the east. A marked disproportional increase in attendances for eye complaints also occurred in the days following the eruption. Work projects could have satisfied the work ethic. Video footage shows a remarkable scene of people flooding over this narrow part of the flow and running to prevent their feet from getting burned a few minor foot burns were treated at Goma hospital. It is likely that people will ignore warnings and will wait for an eruption to occur before taking action. The presence of large quantities of methane and carbon dioxide stored at depth in Lake Kivu has been recognized and puzzled over by scientists since the early s,22 if not before.

Lava invaded the airport at around , and was at the Cathedral by two hours later. The patients are normally expected to pay for hospital and health clinic treatment, though charges for health care were wavered in the two months after the eruption, when use of the facilities markedly increased as a result. Thus it is clear that for effective real-time monitoring of volcanic activity, images from geostationary satellites are essential and provide valuable information that is not contained in single images from polar-orbiting satellites. However, the long-term consequences of the psychological and economic impacts of the destruction to private and commercial property, as well as the political issues surrounding the future viability of Goma, may yet unfold. The vents are known in Swahili as Mazuku places with “evil winds” , and the depressions are often the locations of dead animals and birds that have been killed by the gas. By 21 January, most of these people had returned to Goma, with approximately 30, persons left scattered in the Goma area and in two camps in Rwanda19 felt earthquakes continued for days afterwards, a reminder that the volcanic activity might not be over, but the eruption had officially ceased on 18 January, though for several days afterwards lava continued to flow into Lake Kivu at the delta created by the main lava flow. Submit Content Share information through ReliefWeb to better inform humanitarians worldwide.

The GVO observed new fumarolic activity in the old Shaheru crater and from new cracks in the inner walls of the Nyiragongo crater following the 7 October earthquake. The case for cash: The ever-present threat of violence also reduces the physical and mental reserves of the population in overcoming natural hazards.


The lack of fires spreading further in the city was an unexpected finding and significantly reduced the overall hazard.

What were the Primary consequences of a volcanic18 hrs: The high eruptioon rate, which was almost entirely attributable to diarrhoeal disease, was unprecedented for refugee populations up to that time. Why, then, did agencies continue to supply these items, even when it was obvious that they had become currency, and a debased one at that, as the continuing supply of vase sheets and pots reduced their sale value to virtually zero and impoverished the people who normally sold them?

The epidemiological surveillance programme showed a large increase in total attendances at the two hospitals and 18 functioning primary health care centres after the eruption Fig. There was no immediate danger of starvation.

A marked disproportional increase in attendances for eye complaints also occurred in the days following the eruption. Forecasting a volcanic eruption days or weeks in advance is not likely to be possible, so an understanding at what stage and on what basis the warning to the NGOs will be given needs to be elaborated upon and agreed with all parties as part of the Contingency Plan.

nyiragongo volcano eruption 2002 case study

Rapid reoccupation of Goma and cholera. Probably not all of this would have undergone chlorination nyiraggongo the chlorination sites were not all up and running until 23 January. Submit Content Share information through ReliefWeb to better inform humanitarians worldwide. Scientific studies are urgently needed to constrain the present volcanic hazard.

Read the Text Version. The importance of this is not sufficiently recognised in parts of the international community and needs to be reinforced as an integral aspect of contingency planning. Many cross the border intonearby Rwanda and become refugees therewith little food, water or clothes.

The case for cash: Goma after the Nyiragongo eruption – ODI HPN

On three such occasions the lava from the mountain has flowed into Lake Kivu from fractures on its southern flank Fig. Why humanitarian assistance is not a long-term solution in the OPT.

There studj tonnes of stock in a warehouse in the western part of Goma, and this could not initially be accessed from the east because of the city being divided by the two lava flows.


Visits were made to Sake and camps for displaced persons. There are possibly numerous places acse carbon dioxide is emitted from the lava rocks by the edge of the lake.

nyiragongo volcano eruption 2002 case study

According to US experts, volcanic ash at high altitudes normally has a distinctive positive IR A sudden re-opening of the eruption fracture at m elevation allowed the lava lake in the summit crater to drain out violently. Yet the aid community in Goma continued to hold to some moral high ground about giving cash.

The Bukavu officials cut off the power supply to Goma at hours on 17 January in order to minimize the risk of fires from the cutting of overhead high-tension lines by the lava flows.

Nyiragongo Volcanic Eruption 2002

It took five days to distribute the food to those in need in Goma, and after 25 January the distribution switched to hospitals, camps and to people living outside Goma. As many aspersons left, whilst a substantial number of people stayed behind in the area of the town between the lava flows and also in the western part of the city. It suffered an economic downturn for the next years as the tourist trade collapsed with few visitors.

The lava flows lit up the scene after nightfall, and they were accompanied by intense fires of buildings, especially at the lava flow fronts. The volcano was made notorious by this event, with its future hazard defined by its unique potential for the sudden release of lava of a very fluid type due to its highly alkalic composition.

Volcano monitoring, therefore, has an important role in forewarning NGO’s and providing them with sufficient lead-time to prepare for the planned or unplanned evacuation of Goma. Further work is needed on the dispersion modelling of the gas cloud to determine the extent of the evacuated area, which will in any event be greater erhption that needed for the lava flow into the city. The hazard map in current circulation needs revision and the eruption scenarios refined for the Goma Contingency Plan.