The Solution We can categorically state that a constant temperature increases the robustness in HPLC and is an important aspect for precise results. Repeat this procedure twice or three times. This is also shown in Figure In their undissociated form, an interaction with a CIS phase is possible and the retention time is large. If this is not possible, perhaps because you have to observe some regulations, you must saturate critical surfaces prior to the injection or try the above-mentioned pieces of advice. II Switch instruments on in the sequence pump, injector, detector, data evaluation except the case your PC controls your pump.

The method description will certainly state the column you should use for your work. In addition to the data evaluation, the computer very often controls the whole device, starting with the pumps, the autosampler, the detector and potentially other peripheral modules. SPC is a simple universal useful tool for monitoring data, enabling early recognition of errors and failures and observing trends. This possibility is only for isocratic separations or sometimes for high-pressure gradients damper before mixing chamber. The decisive factor for the resolution depends on the separation mechanism. If everything is OK, inject standard. Fill in those steps in both schemes or modify them.

Occasionally this results in a high back pressure and almost always a decrease in separation performance.

More Practical Problem Solving in HPLC – Stavros Kromidas – Google Books

Figure shows, as an example of the first case, a chromatogram containing three peaks that elute very fast and a fourth one with a “normal” retention time. Practial a customer review. How can you use the parameter “temperature” in the real world to optimize your separation? Check the method validation closely.


Practical Problem Solving in HPLC – PDF Free Download

The situation is quite complicated, but the above-mentioned two factors are the reasons in simplified form. The possibility of doing some validation work mroe also nice to have. Data rate, data acquisition rate or sample rate This simply means the number of recorded data points per time unit.

Conclusion The buffers recommended for robust mobile phases are listed in Table below: In the following, several typical examples of where you can reckon on problems are listed. After the introduction of HPLC in the late sixties, the technique experienced a meteoric growth and established itself as the leading analytical tool in the pharmaceutical industry.

stavros kromidas more practical problem solving in hplc

moore The division of the tips into three topics does not follow hard and fast rules, for the line between “error recognition” and “optimization” is not sharp. Despite your careful choice, you obtain under identical chromatographic conditions mobile phase composition, pH, temperature, etc. How do you recognize a memory effect and how can you eliminate it? Marketing needed more effective advertising: Separation of phenols on two silica gels source: The user adopting the method will be grateful to the author.

It acts as an indicator of the presence of dirt and flushes out organic impurities.

stavros kromidas more practical problem solving in hplc

The operation of the equipment is best explained by a colleague, or when you participate in a seminar organized by the manufacturer. Users wanted good separations: Somehow different, but similarly annoying problems arise with low-pH mobile phases, e. Please try again later.


Here we have t m “” 0. Please check whether one or more of the listed chromatographic conditions are part of your current method.

Practical Problem Solving in HPLC

However, after using this cleaning procedure you lose ca. An example may demonstrate this: Or have you no knowledge about this?

The present book aims to take account of both. If the flow rate actually changes, the residence time in the detection cell changes: Prepare the necessary mobile phase according to the method description, membrane filter buffer, degas, connect to inlet tube, if necessary remove air bubbles with syringe or purge.

Sell on Amazon Start a Selling Account. The Solution Table If you are using a new column, condition it according to the instructions of your supplier. To have the essential information at a glance, a check list “What to pay attention to before starting a method” and a flow scheme “How to start working with HPLC equipment” follow on the next page. The time required is somewhere between a few minutes simple analysis, e.