Smith’s arguments were demol- ished by the anthropologist Roland Dixon many years ago, but Van Sertima continues to articulate them in his writings and speeches up until the present time. The Phoenicians, centered in Tyre, dominated the trade throughout the first millennium b. Even in , Clavijero : The cloth to be dyed is rubbed with the mussel, the mussel is returned to the sea, and the dye, which is photo- oxidized in situ, eventually colors the fabric purple Carlsen and Wenger ; Barber Archaeology of San Lorenzo Tenochtitlan. Crisol de las razas del mundo. The first evidence of a black presence in the America, quoted by the author, was given to Columbus by the Indians themselves.
Excavations on the Olmec Frontier.
However, the evidence provided by these figurines is much less persuasive than Van Sertima and his supporters would have us believe. The word for book, actually papyrus roll, is md3t medjat.
They Came Before Columbus by Ivan Van Sertima Essay
This accounts for the enormous sanctity accorded to shell purple, which, according to Besnier, was not only considered a noble and sacred color by the Egyptians but “emblematic of the power of the gods. This word like Ra for sun and yam for paradise which the Egyptian Re, iaro or yaro share with the pre-Inca people of Peru, has led to a very interesting revelation.
vah Charles Finch, in a letter to me dated January 20, “I have investigated the possible Egyptian ety- mologies of the pre-Columbian Meso-American word “amoxaque” and the pre-Columbian Peruvian word “amoutas. The New Settima species differs from those found and used in the Old World in that they can be rubbed to release the dye and do not require breaking or crushing Barber A Current Bibliography on African Affairs 2 At this point, there is no evidence that proves or disproves the Afrocentric contact theo- ries, but the burden of proof lies with Van Sertima and the Afrocentrists, not with any critic.
Harvard Uni- versity Press.
It is therefore quite astonishing for Van Sertima and his supporters to ignore the recent evidence and pretend that works written in the s are still relevant and authoritative in the s. However, there is conclusive proof that the Davenport Tablets are fakes Feder Muslim Digest 5 1: The essay will begin with a brief review of the theory that the ancient Egyptians, Nubians, and other “Black” Africans came to the Americas at various times before the s and established or helped to establish its first civilizations.
Curiously, Van Sertima hardly discusses the pyramids that were built by the Nubian pharaohs of Egypt during the final stages of his Meso- american contact scenario twenty-fifth dynasty, ca.
Click here to sign up. Even such tradition as pipe smoking is used by Sertima to prove his thesis.
The dyeing process does not involve all the elaborate steps described by Pliny and crucial to the diffusionist arguments of Grafton Elliot Smith, Mackenzie, and Van Sertima. In a rather doctrinaire fashion, Van Ser- tima has declared that the colossal stone heads have no relationship with the many Olmec terracotta figurines and relief sculptures that illustrate the various elements of the were-jaguar cult and the idealization of obesity in children and adults.
Remember me on this computer. Such phrases or statements apparently have persuaded many Afrocentrists to accept Van Sertima’s hypothesis as fact as opposed to theory or specula- tion. Barber, Elizabeth Wayland Prehistoric Textiles. He is a literary critic, a linguist, an anthropologist and has made a name in all three fields. South African Journal of Science Some teachers and college instructors have summarily dismissed such ideas as pure speculation not worthy of discussion, while others probably the majority have tried to evade the issue entirely by pleading ignorance or by urging their students to investigate the matter further.
Von Daniken claims that the “absolutely accurate” map is based on “aerial photographs taken from a very great height” by alien visitors from outer space see Stiebing Some of the colossal stone heads appear to be stereotypically more “Negroid” in appearance than others.
According to Van Sertima, the most important of these voyages was the expedition organized by Abu-Bakari II, the West African emperor of Mali, who allegedly sailed to the Gulf coast of Mexico with a large fleet of ships in a.
Asante, Molefi Kete, and Mark T. Victoria Reifler Bricker, ed. Mackenzie cites no primary Egyptian text, no authority on Egyptian religion, not even Grafton Elliot Smith, to support his strained argument.
There is no Egyptian deity called “Khekh. These last two individuals based their assertions primarily on the ex- tremist ideas of Harold S.
Apart from the fact that Pacal was not mummified, Van Sertima They Were NOT Here before Columbus has not provided his readers with an example of an Olmec sarcophagus in the Egyptian style, nor has he shown how the design for the alleged Egyptian prototype was presumably transmitted from the Olmecs to the Mayas over a period of almost 1, years.
The only textiles tested for color, those of the Maya from Rio Azul, were treated with cinnabar; that is to say, they were painted, not dyed Carlsen and Wenger These pyramids were also small, pointy, smooth, triangular-sided structures in the Egyptian style, which included wall paintings, funerary objects sha- wabtiand other Egyptian styled artifacts not found in serti,a of the mounds or platform structures built by the later Olmecs.