Annual Report xxxvii effective. Following its withdrawal, … , South Africa would be able to host as many AU Summits as possible and also to invite President Bashir without any concern about criticism from the Court. This chapter analyses the instruments that are in place at both regional and sub-regional levels in Africa. To the contrary, international crimes are also committed in other parts of the world. But, the problem with this option is that it appears to be inconsistent with the very motives that have informed the creation of the AU Criminal Court. However, this does not imply that international crimes are confined to Africa. Further, provisions in the Malabo Protocol addressing jurisdiction have been elaborated to provide for corporate criminal liability and a newer version of the complementarity principle.

At the international level, the practice of the Nuremberg Tribunal underscored individual criminal liability. Furthermore, its international criminal law mandate at least in respect of the crimes of genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes at the moment, and the crime of aggression in the future will be shared with the ICC. Initially, the doctrine was limited to civil matters due to four major obstacles: In particular, official capacity as a Head of State or Government, a member of a Government or parliament, an elected representative or a govern- ment official shall in no case exempt a person from criminal responsibility under this Statute, nor shall it, in and of itself, constitute a ground for reduction of sentence. As noted above, the ICC whose Statute does not accord immunities to officials of states parties will remain the only competent court owing to the incapacity of the AU Criminal Court to proceed.

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In particular, official capacity as a Head of State or Government, a member of a Government or parliament, an disserfation representative or a govern- ment official shall in no case exempt a person from criminal responsibility under this Statute, nor shall it, in and of itself, constitute a ground for reduction of sentence.

The recent arrest of General Karanzi Karake of Rwanda is another exercise of extraterritorial jurisdiction on the basis of universality or passive personality by European countries on African indicted officials. This is a significant step in the history of international criminal law. Il convient toutefois de relativiser cet isolement.


The quan- tity of such prosecutions is still very low.

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But that is not to say that other sticks may not be found. But enquêet will be no success story without support from African states.

To take certain actions under the African Growth Opportunity and for other purposes. Annual Report xxxvii effective. A possible justification is that no regional criminal courts with jurisdiction over core crimes existed when the ICC was established. It is important to uphold the Malabo Protocol approach that whosoever wants to invest in Africa must abide by certain human rights standards. It also implies that the ICC, although currently the dominant global judicial system of international criminal justice, is not the end of the story of the development of international criminal law.

Issues, challenges and prospects in and International criminal justice in Africa, The ICC could equitably allocate part of its financial resources to regional criminal courts to support their proceedings. It must be recalled that this Court has been created for the purpose of realising African self-reliance and participation in dealing with crimes committed in Africa, before dissertaiton involvement of non- African mechanisms of criminal accountability.

For criminal liability arising from complicit acts the physical act comprising the offence does not have its own inherent criminality, but rather, it borrows the criminality of the act committed by the principal perpetrator of the criminal enterprise. This is especially important in those cases where crimes fissertation committed in non-member states and in situations where the UNSC is unable or unwilling to use its power of referral.

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Initially, the doctrine was limited to civil matters dissertatioj to four major obstacles: It makes logical sense that once a corporate has been found criminally liable then the actual perpetrators and accomplices should be held to account for their actions. On the one side of the equation one may enquêhe to, for example: Yet, as late assome US domestic courts have been still grappling with the civil-criminal dimensions of corporate criminal liability.

The suspension of proceedings will not yet be fflagrance since the same power is not flagrane given by the Malabo Protocol Annex to the AU Assembly. Many African states for example, Botswana, Ghana, and Nigeria and a great number of African civil society organisations 36 Written submissions of the Republic of South Africa, Je pense qu’il n’y a pas d’autre solution que de renverser l’expression.


The drafters and negotiators are acutely aware of the fact that the proposed Court will be complementary to national courts and will co-exist with other international courts, which will have similar mandates and jurisdictions to it.

That the Court has faced such political opposition is certainly beyond question.

The latter principle involves the power to adjudicate, which potentially stands at the disposal of any state. First of all, regional trial chambers may be established at odd times, depending on circumstances peculiar to each situation and each region. Review native language verification applications submitted by your peers.

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Like England, the US first imposed corporate criminal liability to cases involving public nuisance, in which private enforcement was unlikely. It was demonstrated that the hierarchical model contains two variants. All possible conflicts of jurisdiction with the AU Criminal Court would be avoided.

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The aim of the AU Model Law is to end impunity for international crimes63 by giving national courts jurisdiction to try non-nationals who have committed international crimes in foreign territory.

The High Court held that the national executive does not have the power to give notice of withdrawal from international treaties without prior parliamentary approval. Corporate knowledge, on the other hand, is proven when it is established that the actual or constructive knowledge of the relevant information of the commission of the offence was possessed within the corporation.

In the case of UNSC referral, the issue of interference may be more apposite.