Theory, research, teaching practice, and college programs pertinent to the development and role of critical thinking are presented in order to show how educators have shaped educational settings to nurture the capacity and disposition to think critically. The authors also acknowledge the generous financial support provided by the Central Washington University Office of the Provost and the Office of the Associate Vice President for Undergraduate Studies. What measurable effect do factors like gender, ethnicity, and prior thinking skill have on changes in critical thinking in general education biology? While some general strategies for problem solving may exist, skill in solving most problems depends a great deal on the extent and organization of the knowledge base available to the problem solver Larkin, Heller, and Greeno ; Simon Jamal Badi and Mustapha Tajdin , op. Misconceptions become apparent when students make predictions based on their schcmas, then test their predictions against actual events. Finally, the underlying assumption of the report is one origi- nally articulated by the Soviet psychologist Lev Vygotsky , who observed that children can do more with assistance than they can do unaided.

Taking a slightly different tack, Steglich informally assessed student attitudes in nonmajors biology courses, and noted that writing produced positive changes in student attitudes toward biology. I also want to thank my first readers, who include Jon Fife and Chris Rigaux at the ERIC Clearinghouse, the reviewers of the original manuscript, and participants at the University of Chicago’s Institute on Teaching and Learning in May , who read an early version of the materials on theoretical per- spectives. For example, this report does not address instruction based on Freire’s concepts of education for critical conscious- ness , although advocates claim powerful effects on stu- dents’ thinking sec, e. How justi- fied is the assumption that learning to analyze arguments en- hances students’ critical thinking ability? He then describes inductive and deductive arguments and illustrates them in depth; separate chapters are devoted to fallacy, analogy, causality, and statistics. Three kinds of knowledge interact in developing a model:


Students probably induce strategic knowledge from working problems and watching teachers solve them Greeno Nonwriting sections allocated 2 h for the prescriptive lab exercises and included a traditional laboratory quiz rather than a writing assignment. They make plans, set goals any ,ubgoals, ask questions, take notes, observe the effective- ness of their efforts, and take corrective action when necessary.

Reasoning in the professions, e. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. The study demonstrates the resilience of beliefs in the face of contrary evidence, confirming results reported by others Dressel and Lehmann ; Lord, Ross, and Leper ; Ross and Anderson Critical Thinking and Emotional Intelligence: Thus, they claim, the disposition to think critically is a key attribute to actually thinking critically.

Philosophers refer to these errors as “fallacies. Fostering thinking across the curriculum through knowledge restructuring. The study demonstrates the resilience of beliefs in the face of contrary evidence, confirming results reported by others Dressel and Lehmann ; Criticl, Ross, and Leper ; Ross and Anderson For beginners, the text is a solution, not a hypothesis.

This initiation must be reinforced and extended in disciplinary study. Students understand the basic “script” for presenting arguments; what they do not understand is kufiss degree to which an argument must be kurfisa oped to be convincing.

Foundation for Critical Thinking. Critique of Critical Thinking as Analysis of Arguments Informal logic as an approach to critical thinking has been criti- cized on several grounds. These studies frequently employ a method first used by Dunckerin which the problem solver is asked to report all thoughts while completing a thinkinv.

Action experiments allow practitioners to act with some assurance even when prob- Critical Thinking 46 am. He deliberately selects complex issues that students care about and that “engage their egocentric thoughts and beliefs” p.

Rising Above kurfisw Gathering Storm: Students who received the infor- mation in a logical, linear, sequential fashion performed less effectively than students who were given a general procedure followed by the specific rules.


Kurfiss, Joanne Gainen

Critifal prompting resulted in the best perfor- mance, although the mean proportion of responses using the cues was a surprisingly low.

The study took place at a state-funded regional comprehensive university in the Pacific Northwest. What are the important skills students need to acquire?

kurfiss 1988 critical thinking

Does the study of certain subjects foster critical think- ing more than others? Collectively, the benefits of using writing in laboratory should encourage faculty who want their students to learn to think critically to give it a try.

kurfiss 1988 critical thinking

Finally, with regards to content coverage, no lecture or laboratory content was killed in order to implement writing because writing and nonwriting students both performed the same lab activities. Identifying issues requiring the application of thinking skills informed by background knowledge; 2. In problem solving as studied in cognition laboratories, the probiems are often complex kuffiss a correct answer usually exists, and only a limited number of approaches xritical only one will.

Learn more about Amazon Prime. Do critical thinking skills learned in one domain transfer to other subjects? Dewey’s thinking foreshadows cognitive concepts of ex- pert problem solving.

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The decision to use collaborative groups to support writing in the laboratory kuefiss partly based on existing literature Collier, ; Bruffee, ; Tobin et al. During the first laboratory session of the quarter, students were grouped into teams of three or four individuals, and the criteria for completing weekly writing assignments were further explained. Writing is thought to be a vehicle for improving student learning Champagne and Kouba, ; Kelly and Chen, ; Keys, ; Hand and Prain,but too often is used as a means to regurgitate content knowledge and derive prescribed outcomes Keys, ; Keys et al.